Questions of practice
István Tiringer: Psychotherapy of the aged – Part 2
János Harmatta, Gábor Szőnyi: Role of György Hidas in the development contemporary Hungarian psychoanalysis and psychotherapy
Zsolt Deák: The qualities which make Jungian psychoanalysis unique
Anita Szemán-Nagy: About the psychotherapy of dissociative identity disorder
Debate on psychotherapy conducted via specific communication channels (like VOIP) – László Bokor
Discussion on touching and body contact – Tamás Bereczky, Andrea Luthardt ¨ Pálma Virág Fehér ¨ Márta Merényi ¨ Katalin Varga, Lilla Benczúr
Ethical questions in therapeutic practice – Zsuzsanna Alpár ¨ Klára Balogh ¨ Noémi Berger ¨ Irén Himmel
Letter to the Editor – Anna Vincze
In memoriam Imre Lövey – Mária Mladenecz
Conferences – Ilona Erős ¨ Lili Valkó, Dóra Sinkó ¨ Tibor Cece Kiss
Book review – Béla Gál¨ Anna Mária Hansjürgens ¨ István Ormay ¨ Aranka Tiringer ¨ István Tiringer
Psychotherapy of the aged
People of the older generation have shown a growing interest in psychotherapy in the last few decades. The increased possibility of treating the older generation is related to increase of the average age in the developed countries. As a result of intensive researches into medical-biology and psychosocial reality our picture of aging became more shaded, against the previous period which was largely about losses and processes of degradation. Psychotherapeutic theory and practice seem to react slowly to changes in the outlook of the basic sciences. There is an obvious shortage of publications about the subject of aging in the home grown psychotherapeutic literature.
This study gives a short account of theories dealing with the subject of aging, and demonstrates the development of the psychotherapeutic methods applied to the aged as they were influenced by modern gerontology.
Epidemiological examinations regarding the care and supply of psychological problems of the aged show substantial lack. Apart from stereotypical simplifications, the cause can be that fact that psychotherapeutic training programmes hardly touch caring for the aged; therapists of the future do not get knowledge relevant theories, and competencies. Training programmes spend little attention to the personal side of therapeutic relationships with the aged (like the characteristic transference – counter-transference issues in working with the aged).
The study discusses the specific diagnostic issues regarding the aged, and illustrates the possibilities within the cognitive-behaviouristic and psychodynamic approaches, and the psychotherapeutic methods developed specifically for working with the aged.
The paper is published in two parts. In the first part, published in the previous issue the author discusses the theoretical background and general characteristics of the psychotherapies of older adults. The second part, published in this issue deals with the cognitive-behavioural and the psychodynamic approaches in the treatment of older people.
Key words: negligence of psychological disorders in older people – theoretical models of psychotherapy in older adults – psychotherapeutic diagnostics and indication – basic psychosomatic provision – cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic approaches
János Harmatta, Gábor Szőnyi
Role of György Hidas in contemporary Hungarian psychoanalysis and psychotherapy
György Hidas (1925-2012) played a decisive role in the recent history of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in Hungary. The authors – for long period close fellow workers of Hidas – review the professional-organizational part of his oeuvre. They search to understand the characteristics in György Hidas’ personality and style of work, which helped him during the era of the three T-s (forbidden, tolerated, supported – in Hungarian: tiltott, tűrt, támogatott) to become the central motor of initiatives, which probed the limits of tolerance, were real civil initiatives and determine the development of psychotherapy even to-day.
Due to historical causes we have little written documents about the discussed projects. While over-viewing the most important endeavours – foundation of group psychotherapy and training; reintegration of psychoanalysis into the international organizations; development of psychotherapy regimes; enhancing broad forms of psychotherapy through the Psychotherapy Weekends; creation of an international multidisciplinary forum by the foundation of the Sándor Ferenczi Society – the authors also touch on points unknown for the current generation.
Hidas’ scientific work will be handled in other papers.
Key-words: psychoanalysis – group psychotherapy – psychotherapeutic regime – Psychotherapeutic Weekends
The qualities which make Jungian psychoanalysis unique
This article is based on a chapter of a larger research study, „The Master-Disciple Relationship as a Metaphor for Healing in Jungian Psychoanalysis: Exploring Archetypal Transference Between Analyst and Patient,” which Zsolt Deak wrote as his Ph. D. dissertation at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in 2011.
The study investigates the experiences of archetypal transference in Jungian psychoanalysis using a new qualitative method. In archetypal transference, the transference does not emanate from a past personal experience, but relates to the collective unconscious; archetypal image or situation, which is projected on the analyst or patient. One of these possibilities that may appear in the analytic relationship is rooted in the archetype of the spiritual master-disciple relationship. The literature of Jungian psychology and spiritual traditions from around the world provide the background for this work. In the research study, 8 senior Jungian analysts have been interviewed, providing their own experiences with archetypal transference, about its relevance and effects on the therapeutic relationship. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Findings suggest that archetypal transference is inevitably present in the analytic relationship even if it is not evident or hard to distinguish from other transferences, and serves the psychological and spiritual growth of both the analyst and patient.
This article is being published first in Hungarian from Zsolt Deak’s dissertation, in which he reflects on the uniqueness of Jungian psychoanalysis based on his research data.
Key words: history of psychoanalysis – Jungian psychoanalysis – archetypal transference – analyst and patient relationship – spirituality
About the psychotherapy of dissociative identity disorder
Two important factors emerge from the scientific literature about aetiology of the dissociative identity disorder, which determine psychotherapeutic interventions as well. One is the experience of serious, long-term abuse in the background of psychopathology and the other one is the auto-hypnotic origin. The autohypnosis is a possibility to escape from the traumatic experiences. The dissociation has an adaptive function during the traumatic experience. On one hand it helps the person to function, but on the other hand it is pathological because the person is not able to process the traumatic events in the absence of integration. As previous thoughts highlighted,the hypnotic state psychotherapy is the most effective, highly recommended to dealing with traumatic experiences with special techniques. In this article I write – shortly – about guided affective imagery and ego-state psychotherapy which are very useful for treating dissociative identity disorder. These are well known in Hungary. With more detail I present the „dissociative table technique” from Fraser. This is a very important psychotherapeutic intervention because it is specific for dissociative identity disorder.
Keywords: dissociative identity disorder – hypnosis – autohypnosis – abuse –„dissociative table technique”
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