a professional journal of practice based on psychotherapeutic methods
A quarterly publication 26th year, issue 4 November 2017
Tibor Cece Kiss, István Tiringer
Lilla Hárdi, Mária Barna: Flight to the „Paradise”? Psychotherapy with refugees
Lili Valkó: The beginning of a therapeutic relationship. Evelin’s arrival at the therapeutic community of Thalassa Ház
István Bojti: The fifth dimension of relationships by Ivan Böszörmenyi-Nagy in the therapeutic practice
Sára Klaniczay: From observation to interpretation – Thoughts about to the aetiology of stuttering.
Panorama – Psychotherapeutic workshops – Noémi Berger, Krisztina Pál
Association corner – Hungarian Psychodrama Association: Our common „intrapsychic disorders” – Sociodrama as critical therapy – Ágnes Blaskó, Kata Horváth, Eszter Pados
Work report – ‘Review the special issue of Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy – Máté Szondy
Debate: Patients controlling time – Mária Farkas ♦ Dalma Szögedi ♦ Éva Gyarmathi ♦ Krisztina Pál
Debate on the ethical samples of the journal – Dóra Fischer ♦ Csaba Horgász ♦ Viola Szebeni
Ethical questions in therapeutic practice 22. Foreign feathers? – István Ormay ♦ Judit Székelyhidi ♦ Adrienne Varga
Letter to the Editor
János Harmatta: Farewell to the old house. On the margin of a news report
Competition: „For I let off these good things at myself…” Mocking glass about our method – Dávid Szél ♦ Ferenc Túry
News and reports
Conferences – Anett Felházi ♦ Katalin Kemény ♦ Krisztina Pál ♦ Zoltán Terenyi
Enquête call – Know-how of Skype-therapy. Issues of distance therapy in psychotherapy and counseling. Enquête of the journal Pszichoterápia
Conference news – Order: Is unbuilding destruction? Renewal in therapy, counseling. 14th conference of the journal Pszichoterápia
Bookreviews – Lívia Olívia Antal ♦ Ágnes Bátfai ♦ Noémi Berger ♦ Nóra Fóris ♦ Dóra Lőrik, Gábor Szőnyi ♦ Zsuzsanna Szabó ♦ Hilda Takács ♦ Éva Urbán ♦ Réka Veres
List of professional books and periodicals
Lilla Hárdi, Mária Barna
Flight to the „Paradise”?
Psychotherapy with refugees
The authors are therapists of the Cordelia Foundation, which has over 20 years of experience as the only organisation in Hungary providing psychotherapeutic and psychiatric care to refugees, with special focus on those who survived severe trauma or torture. In the present article we summarise the complex properties of traumatization and its particularities concerning the refugee population. We attempt to illustrate the challenges and many shades of therapeutic work with this particular patient group, from individual therapy, through group and nonverbal therapy methods, to the possibilities offered by art therapy, touching also upon the often critically viewed aspects of doing therapy with interpreters. Through the above, our study does not only shed light on the exciting aspects of working in multicultural settings, but highlights the difficulties as well. Flexibility is a must-have to be able to adapt methods stemming from clinical practice and put them into a framework characterized by different cultural backgrounds, ever-changing legal and social settings and an often extreme uncertainty that refugee or asylum seeker patients find themselves in.
Keywords: refugee – trauma – abuse – interpreter – therapeutic methods
The fifth dimension of relationships by Ivan Böszörmenyi-Nagy in the therapeutic practice
According to Ivan Böszörmenyi-Nagy, the fifth member of the dimensional model of human relationship is the ontic dimension, by which the Self is inherently dependant on the Other to exist as a Self, the same way as a figure assumes the existence of a background. Correspondingly, the presence of the Other is necessary for the integrity of the personality. This ontic need is an independent motivation to behaviour, and an independent dimension for the analysis of relationships. The ontic dimension is reflected by the dialectic theory of personality, that the personality is the synthesis of the Self (the thesis) and the Other (antithesis). A common feature of the transaction between the Self and the Other is, that the party who initiates the transaction is in the Subject position, and the other party – to whom the transaction is directed – is in the Object position. Böszörményi-Nagy defines six relational modes between the Self and Other, and on the typically occupied Subject or Object position. This paper illustrates the theoretical background with details of actual therapeutic cases. In the first two cases – one with a conflict between generations, one with an anxious client – the study introduces the clinical application of the concept of a predominant Subject or Object position. The third case is a client with a loss of an object, where the therapeutic situation is interpreted by integrating the ontic dimension with the relational modes. The author concludes that the discussed theories can play an important role in the practice of psychotherapy.
Keywords: ontic, fifth dimension – relational modes – dialectical theory of personality – relational ethics
The beginning of a therapeutic relationship
Evelin’s arrival at the therapeutic community of Thalassa Ház
The goal of this case study is to present a possible way to understand how a certain integration of different scenes signify the treatment’s essence in the therapeutic community of Thalassa Ház through the details of the first 2,5-3 month long period of a 17 year old adolescent’s, Evelin’s nine months long psychotherapy. The short review of the therapeutic community’s characteristics, functioning and therapeutic program establishes the understanding of the polychromatic therapeutic story. First the reader has the opportunity to imagine Evelin according to a short presentation, to live through the happenings of the first weeks, then to receive a sketch of her life story. After the probation Evelin commits to long term therapy, that is when she allows herself to play out her difficulties in the space of the community where her self-destructiveness appears in the form of self-harm. The tentative to end the treatment signifies the first turning point. In the study I call the structures separated by sharp boundaries in the therapeutic community’s matrix different scenes. Of these I first elaborate how Evelin was present in the community, then how we worked with the team during our meetings and our staff group on the integration of the self and object parts projected into us, how the helpers of different roles became important for Evelin, and finally I give a taste of how these processes reflected in the worlds of the psychotherapeutic groups.
Keywords: therapeutic community – scenes – adolescent – self-harm
From observation to interpretation – Thoughts about to the aetiology of stuttering
In the past 30 years I have worked a great number of stuttering children doing individual, child analytic psychotherapy. My hypothesis about the formation of stuttering was formulated during my therapeutic work.
My interest in the subject was aroused at the beginning of my career: my first four little patients were stutterers. After their recovery my colleagues kept sending me new stuttering patients.
I began to study the literature. There are a lot of different theories about stuttering, to some extent contradictory of one another. I found some truth in each of these theories, however, I could not accept as final conclusion that „stuttering is a multicausal phenomenon”. I needed an explanation on the basis of the same principle, I thought a link was missing in the chain.
It was the dramatic behaviour of a three-year-old little boy that made me connect the problem of stuttering to the idea of clinging. That was how I turned to Imre Hermann’s theory of clinging when trying to find an explanation to stuttering.
The qualitative analysis of my cases confirmed the idea that stuttering is caused by the problems in the mother-child relationship, by the frustration of the child’s clinging to the mother.
As stuttering usually begins between the age of 2 and 4, I began to study around 3 this period of life, the dynamics of instinct-development and Ego-development. This period of life seemed to be a crucial period in the formation of stuttering.
It was becoming more and more obvious for me, that at the age of 3, frustrated clinging to the mother might result in stuttering. However, I could not place this connection among other connections about the subject. Could the frustration of clinging be one of the causes of a multicausal phenomenon?
Years had passed before I realised that studying the direct cause related connections was not the right method. Only by placing it into a more spacious context, viewing it from a greater distance, could the phenomenon be interpreted. That was how I found the idea of „specific basic situation”. With the help of this idea I formulated my hypothesis concerning the aetiology of stuttering as follows.
Around the age of 3 the frustration of clinging to the mother brings about a basic situation which makes the child prone to stutter. There may be several trigger factors in the background.
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