Questions of practice
Erzsébet Adrigán, Beáta Békési, Anna Campos J., Ágnes Hódi, Mária Rajnik : View from the doorstep I. – II.
Zsuzsa Kovács, Csaba Szabó: Oncopsychology at the beginning of the 21th century – facing new challenges
Gábor Szőnyi: Group leaders’ practice in Hungary 1984. Assessment of the Hungarian Psychological Association (final study), Budapest, 1985. II.
Colette Chiland, Anne-Marie Clouet, Michèle Guinot, Bernard Golse, Pierre Jouannet, Patrick Revidi: Fathers of ’new gender’ and their children II. Translated by Anna Sebes
Ilona Bedő, Tímea Papp: Up and down, in light and dark. Relationship between the physical environment and the DSZIT
Debate: Being formal or informal? How to address each other in a therapeutic setting or during a consultation – Noémi Berger Móni Justin
Point of view – professional leaders about psychotherapeutic attendance: Attila Németh Éva Urbán
In memoriam János Csirszka – Éva Szombathelyi
Conferences – Árpád Mihalik
Book reviews – Péter Osváth
Rhinestones – László Bokor
Questions of practice
Erzsébet Adrigán, Beáta Békési, Anna Campos J., Ágnes Hódi, Mária Rajnik
View from the doorstep I – II
By means of presenting the theory and practice of infant observation we are going to give an examination of the way how the therapeutic skills of an observer could be established and refined and how he/she can be helped in his/her everyday therapeutic practice, by this method. Infant observation, in several countries, has been an inclusive part of the psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic training for decades making the complex system of training which consists of personal analysis, supervision and theoretical training course, more complete. It is an exciting experience to create a special position, where the observer – getting emotionally involved – may feel being inside within a family that is to be observed, but at the same time he/she may keep some distance, as if standing on and observing the family ”from the doorstep”.
The technique of infant observation is based on the method of participant observation, which is an attitude that can hardly be given a perfect definition. Sullivan was the first psychoanalyst to note that this attitude can be found in the analytic relationship, since the analyst as an observer is getting emotionally engaged in the interactions with the patient, but at the same time, he/she is able to look at this engagement from an outside perspective. While infant observation is going on, both the impact of the observer’s experiences obtained in the family and also the feelings of his/her own to be monitored continuously, are present in his/her mind, however, the observer tries to keep his/her observing position. He/she abstains from initiating interactions, and doesn’t become involved in the family-life, even though his/her presence itself has definitely an influence on those circumstances. The observer has to find his/her place in the psychological space that is gradually emerging.
Keywords: participant observation – infant observation – therapeutic skills – intersubjectivity
Zsuzsa Kovács, Csaba Szabó:
Oncopsychology at the beginning of the 21th century – facing new challenges
Oncopsychology has been going through a significant phase during the last three decades. Psychological factors, health behaviour and lifestyle have proven to play an important role in the development of cancerous conditions as well as in the healing process of patients. The clinical experience and the related published research both prove that psychological support and the wide range of applied psychosocial care reduce patients’ vulnerability, enhance the resistance to disease processes, encourage coping and significantly improve the quality of life. Despite the strong need expressed by the patients and research results the specialist services of oncopsychology are well underrepresented in the oncological care. At the beginning of the 21th century cancer treatment faces a serious challenge – according to epidemiological research the number of cancer patients is set to double within the next two decades. In my research I summarise the main stages of the development of oncopsychology, review psychotherapeutic methods which according to the related international literature are extensively applied, and give an account of the major research results and practical therapeutic proposals.
Keywords: oncopsychology – psychosocial intervention – spiritual growth – survival
Colette Chiland, Anne-Marie Clouet, Michèle Guinot, Bernard Golse, Pierre Jouannet, Patrick Revidi:
Fathers of ’new gender’ and their children II
Translated by Anna Sebes
The CECOS centre of the Cochain Hospital (Centre d’Etude et de Conservation des Oeufs et du Sperme), (Research and storage centre for sperms) started a programme in 1999 that aims at the artificial insemination (IAD)of transsexual males (transman) and their partners. The project was received with mixed reception and it was discussed in an ethical committee. The emerging questions referred to the following: mental health of a transman, can he be a father, will their children have the chance for normal development, especially development of their sexual identity. They offered the parents to continuously follow their children’s development, to find out if the emerged objections are justified. If so, the programme has to be stopped, but if they have no bases in reality, the programme may continue, and even extend it to the other CECOSs. The parents accepted the continuous following of their children’s development. They began consultation with the parents when the child was one year old, after that in every second year. From 2000 to 2012, 42 children were born (28 boys and 14 girls) from 29 couples. 24 children’s continuous following was done by the end of 2010, and they planned to observe the rest in the next year. It became clear from the observations that the couples were not homosexual and stable couples: the father behaved like a competent father; and the fathers without a penis identified with the male and paternal values of their culture. As to the children, they were all right, developed adequately, seemed to be satisfied with their life, and, in harmony with their gender, they felt to be boys or girls. They suggested to the parents to tell the children about their having been conceived by artificial insemination (IAD), or the transsexuality of their father. No problems came up about IADs. As to transsexuality, however much the father wished to talk to their children about it, they did not know how to verbalise it; one father made a book of drawings, and it helped him to convey with simple words to make the children to understand their childhood, because it is usually difficult to a father to talk about such things naturally. We have no reason to regret our attempt to help transsexual man to become fathers. It will be interesting to see how their children will experience their adolescence.
Keywords: transsexuality – artificial insemination with a donor – fatherhood – social gender identity – following children.
Group leaders’ practice in Hungary 1984. Assessment of the Hungarian Psychological Association (final study), Budapest, 1985. II
The study presents the data of a questionnaire made in 1984. The assessment was made by the Hungarian Psychological Association with an aim to have a glance at the spreading of group leaders’ activity, the area of their practice, the various methods, and the group leaders’ qualification. The questioner used for the examination gathered data with the help of direct and indirect questions regarding personal variations, circumstances of group leadership, experiences in group leadership, qualification, and the self-assessment of group leaders. The assessment built on the data from 3009 questioners. They were provided by members of the mentioned Association, and by group leaders, who did not belong to any association.
On top of guidance, the examination aimed at giving information for the illumination of professional background of group leadership.
The processing and interpretation of the data we discover that more than 75 percent of the contributors considered the strengthening of professional openness and identity, and asked for a register of group leaders. We can recognise the connection between the group leaders’ and general professional charier, the distribution of areas of application, the qualification of group leaders, frequency of the various modalities, history of their application, the Budapest centred nature of the profession. Components of the training has been analysed, the absence of systematic theoretical education and the critical state of supervision becomes obvious. WE discover that 30 percent of group leaders consider themselves able to lead training groups as well. The author of the assessment points out the most urgent problems and outlines the direction of further development.
The assessment is presented in its entirety in two parts, and only abandoned the decimal arrangement. The first part discusses the position of group leadership, while the second part analyses the group leaders’ education, experience and self-assessment
Keywords: group leaders’ activity – application areas of group methods – applied methods – group leaders’ qualification
Ilona Bedő, Tímea Papp:
Up and down, in light and dark
Relationship between the physical environment and the DSZIT
The mode of action of the dynamic sensory integration therapy (DSZIT) is based on the observations attained through extensive field experiences of the various sensory and movement experiences, and therefore the physical environment of the therapy is of great importance. In the midst of the specific conditions of the DSZIT a child’s previous experiences can be evoked, categorized and integrated in his or her body and soul. In a therapist’s appreciative presence the child can try new ways of problem solving, can discover his or her personal and individual development opportunities. In our presentation we would like to talk about the relationship between the physical properties of the environment of the therapy and the therapeutic events. We are going to present two treatment scenes: while in one case “diving, submergence” and distancing oneself from everyday events may occur, in the other case “rising” and visual and audio blending into everyday surroundings can be implicated. Finally, we pondered what the impact of changing the environment and location would be for the children, the therapist and for the sensory integration therapy.
Keywords: real-world experience, physical environment, incubation, therapeutic scenesVissza az előzőre